Three Pheromone Factors

posted on 06 Sep 2015 18:36 by lusharson8884 in Pheromones

Pheromone levels In Men

In some cases, pheromone levels in men could be raised to treat hypogonadism or testosterone deficiency, the latter of which can be caused by old age, alcoholism, testicular disease, or Klinefelter’s syndrome. Men who have low pheromone levels sometimes experience fatigue, weakness of the muscles and bones, depression, diminished libido, and impotence.

 According to the Testosterone Source, an Internet site sponsored by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals and which provides information on how testosterone levels can affect men in middle age, testosterone deficiency can also result in osteoporosis and muscle wasting. One of the Web site’s consultants, Dr. Adrian Dobs of Johns Hopkins University Medical School, estimates that five million American men do not produce enough testosterone and only about 5 percent of them seek testosterone replacement therapy. 

Abnormalities in the prostate can be detected in the early stages of disease with the use of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. Often, the prostate gland is removed (prostatectomy) upon discovery of abnormalities or cancerous cells. Other treatments include radiotherapy and the prescription of drugs that prevent cancerous cells from feeding on hormones. 

Prostate cancer can be treated with a number of drugs in pill form that reduce testosterone in the body. They include Lupron Depot, a product of TAP Pharmaceuticals, and Zoladex, a prod-uct of Zeneca Pharmaceuticals. Combined sales of these drugs, the dominant therapies for testosterone reduction, reach into the hundreds of millions of dollars each year.

Pheromones may someday provide an alternative treatment for prostate cancer. Pherin scientists are investigating a pheromones that can decrease a man’s testosterone levels and, by design, slow the growth of a tumor in the prostate. And a pheromones would produce fewer side effects than do the standard therapies.

Thus, there are three pheromone factors determining how many moths will be caught in a trap: (1) trap placement, discussed above, (2) the attractancy of the trap plus bait, and (3) relative trap efficiency. As seen above, a number of factors are involved in the relative trap efficiency of one trap vs. others, which in the final analysis can only be verified through field testing.

Roelofs and Carde defined trap efficiency as “the ability of a synthetic-baited attractant system to ensnare insects lured into the trap vicinity”. They also pointed out that while relative catch of pheromone traps has been considered synonomous with trapping efficiency, important factors, including multiple visits of single males to the trap before capture, and the absence of components crucial to close-range orientation, could be obscured, giving a false impression of good trapping efficiency. Therefore, direct observation of male behavior is needed to determine true trap efficiency according to and

Although relative trap catch is not synonomous with relative pheromone trap efficiency, if trap A consistently catches more moths than trap B, all else being equal, then trap A is probably the better trap for use in a mass-trapping program, and it becomes academic whether the larger catch is due to superior attractancy or superior trapping efficiency. On the other hand, knowledge of which features lead to superior trap attractiveness and which lead to improved trap efficiency should be useful in designing better traps. It was just such an analysis that led Miller et al.“ to improve the trapping efficiency of the Pherocon lC® trap for gypsy moth males by making certain minor changes. Learn about sexual pheromones |

Mastro et al.” recorded the relative trap efficiencies of numerous trap designs for trapping feral male gypsy moths, based on observations of numbers of males orientat- ing to a trap or to the tree on which the trap was hung. Included were some of the traps in long use for gypsy moth trapping. The most efficient traps were the “harp”, “grid”. and “paperboard" traps. which were just flat surfaces bearing adhesive with pheromone halt in the center.

Pheromones may cause an abrupt cessation in searching behavior. At any rate, a gypsy moth male spends but little time, perhaps 20 sec,‘-'5 at a particular location searching for a female, after which he abruptly terminates searching and flies away.“ The importance of lure quality and identity is paramount at this point, e.g., a male will spend more time searching at a source containing (+ )-pheromone than at one containing racemic pheromones,” or impurities may inhibit close approach to the lure. Learn about pheromone cologne |

Pheromone Dynamics and Perception

It is the interaction of the male moth with the pheromone in the air that leads to the subsequent location by the male of the pheromone emitter (female or trap). In relatively still and thermodynamically stable air, the drift of pheromone from the emit- ting source will take the form of a plume. In theory, a male moth can follow this plume back to the emitting source, and this is why pheromone traps work, or perhaps why they don’t work where thermodynamic conditions lead to excessive disruption of the plume. Work on the dynamics of the pheromone plume has been reviewed recently.

edit @ 2 Jan 2017 07:09:11 by lusharson8884