The pheromone gland, suppressed or almost totally inhibited male attraction to traps baited with either disparlure or virgin female moths. They suggest that, if the oleﬁn causes mating inhibition at the central nervous system level, it could potentially be more effective in disrupting mating than the attractant itself. In field tests during 1973, in which a rnicroencapsulated pheromone formulation of the olefin was used, we were unable to demonstrate reduced mating among test insects (Cameron et al. 1973b). The work done to date with inhibitors must be considered preliminary: much more extensive testing must be conducted before the use of the pheromone precursor can justiﬁably be considered as a promising avenue through which gypsy moth mating can be disrupted. Learn more about pheromones at my site. Consider female pheromones | Pheromones-Planet.com
Pheromones are a valuable tool for survey and detection; it has potential use as an aid in estimating population densities or evaluating populations remaining after chemical or other suppression treatments, in estimating defoliation in subsequent years, and, perhaps most importantly, as a direct agent for population manipulation. There is clear evidence that its potential may be realized over the next several years. Check out pheromones at my house..
22.7. Forest Lepidoptera — the spruce budworm by C. J. Sanders
The name spruce budworm is commonly applied to a group of lepidopterous defoliators of the family Tortricidae, native to North America, whose larvae feed in the expanding buds and new foliage of conifers. Periodically their numbers increase dramatically to cause devastating outbreaks which collapse only after causing de- foliation and tree mortality over millions of acres utilizing pheromones.
The single most important species is Clzoristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), the eastern spruce budworm, which is found throughout the range of balsam fir and white spruce from the Yukon, the northern forested areas of the Prairie Provinces and throughout Ontario, Quebec, the Maritimes, and northern New England, extending down the Appalachians into West Virginia. In the West the species of greatest economic importance is C. occidentalis Free., the western one-year cycle budworm which feeds primarily on Douglas fir and white fir, extending from southern British Columbia, South to New Mexico and Arizona. Learn about Sundowndivers.org.
Three other spruce-fir feeding species are recognized in the west; C biennis Free., the two-year cycle budworm; C. viridis Free., the green budworm, and C. orae, the coastal budworm. However, these three species are restricted in range and are of limited economic importance. Other Choristoneura species feed on pine, notably C. pinus Free., the jack-pine budworm in the east, and a group of species in the west, including C. lambertizma Bsk., whose taxonomy is still unresolved with pheromones.
The mono-unsaturated aldehyde, trans-1 1-tetradecenal has been identiﬁed as a major component of the sex pheromone communication system of C. fumiferana and field trials have demonstrated its attractiveness to both C. fumiferana and C‘. occidentalis (Weatherston et al. 1971), and subsequently to male C. biennis (Sanders et al. 1974), three species which had earlier been shown to have similar, if not identical, sex pheromones (Sanders 1971). C. viridis is strongly attracted by the corresponding acetate, trans-l 1-tetradecenyl acetate (Sanders et al. 1974), a com- pound suspected of being a major component in the sex pheromone systems of C. pinus and C. orae, although the males of neither species are attracted by the acetate alone (Sanders, unpublished). Two pheromone compounds have been shown to inhibit the response of male C’. Learn more about pheromones at http://spanishinperu.org/human-pheromones-and-insects/
edit @ 8 May 2016 05:11:12 by lusharson8884